LABORATORY OF MEDICINAL AND TEHNICAL PLANTS
- LABORATORY OF MEDICINAL AND TEHNICAL PLANTS
The laboratory of medicinal and tehnical plants was organized in 1960 under the guidance of Ph.D. Elena E. Korotkova. Subsequently, it was led by Dr. Sc. K. Tayzhanov (197 - 1989), Ph.D. A.M. Nigmatullaev (since 1989).
Ph.D. E. E. Korotkova, Dr. Sc. K. Tayzhanov Ph.D. A.M. Nigmatullaev
The task of this laboratory included the search and organization of plant blanks for preliminary, and then deep chemical and biological research. Laboratory staff studied the biosynthesis, phytocenoses, habitats and yields of the most valuable in practical terms plants. They carried out primary tests on the introduction of plants into cultivation in the places of their natural growth and a special state farm, and they developed a botanical part of the temporary technical conditions and pharmacopoeial articles on plants that. They were the raw material for obtaining drugs. Data are accumulated on the relationship of plant species with their chemical composition for the development of plant systematics based on deeper traits than morphological ones.
The laboratory staff conducted a huge number of expeditions to Kyzylkum, the high-mountainous pasture valleys of Susamyr and Alay, mountain ranges of Dzungarian Alatau, Kopetdag and Tien-Shan-Terskei, Kungei, Alatau, Karat
au, and Pamir-Alay ranges.
At first, the laboratory research was agricultural in nature, i.e. To prevent cases of poisoning of animals on pastures of Central Asia, identify poisonous and alkaloid plants, establish their distribution, stocks and role in the vegetation cover (abundance), as well as the degree of toxicity for grazing animals.
The poor knowledge of alkaloid plants allowed the laboratory staff to select the following topics:
S.T. Kholodkov "Alkaloid plants of the Susamyr valley of the Kirghiz SSR. 1962;
K. Taizhanov "Alkaloid plants of Alay (Kyrgyzstan)" -1968;
T.A. Adylovym "Poisonous and alkaloid plants of Uzbekistan" 1965
The authors analyzed the content of alkaloids and revealed new alkaloidnosuses, in the Susamyr valley 472 species, in the Alay valley - 532, in Kyzylkum - 360 species of plants. Further, special attention was paid to the isolation of individual alkaloids, currently the number of which has exceeded 1000.
As a result of complex studies of the flora of Uzbekistan and the neighboring republics of Central Asia, more than 5,400 plant species were subjected to qualitative and quantitative research and new classes of antiarrhythmic drugs were identified among diterpenic alkaloids, antibiotics with afrodesic action from the class of phytoecdysteroids, drugs with a wide spectrum of action from the class of quinozoline alkaloids and many more drugs from other classes of compounds. All conducted chemical, technological, biomedical research and even clinical trials of the drugs produced are provided by the staff of this laboratory.
Laboratory staff congratulate the hero of the day, Ph.D. Korotkovа E.E. (1977)
Further studies were carried out on specific medicinal plants - potential sources of new medical preparations.
Identified areas, natural reserves and studied plant biology. For the first time Hamidhojaev S.A. The species composition of Ungernia (Ungernia) of the native flora is quite fully identified, the morphological features of the Ungherniy species, their biology, the passage of phenophases, geographical distribution and ecological characteristics, their participation in vegetation cover are described.
Field arrays of natural thickets and stocks of Ungernii leaves, their alkaloid content and the dynamics of alkaloid accumulation in the development phases are described.
The expedition of the laboratory, with the direct participation of Khamidhodzhaev, discovered Ungerniya Viktor’s thicket - the source of the drug galantamine on the southern spurs of the Gissar Range in the gorge of the Shargun River. All stages of research are provided with raw materials - chemical, pharmacological, clinical; drug from Ungernia Viktor introduced into medical practice. In the future, drugs from Ungernia Sevtsov and U. three-sphere were introduced into practice.
In addition, the laboratory staff studied the biology, identified commercial arrays of thickets, identified the natural reserves of raw materials in Central Asia of the following plants - sources of medicinal preparations:
U. Rakhmankulov Psoralea drupacea - psoralena (U.), VG Sidyakin Thermopsis alterniflora - cytisine, A. Nigmatullaevym Aconitum leucostomum - allaninina, A.zerawschanicum - heterotisin, A.monticola - napellina, Silene praemixta - ecdisten, Ajuga turkestanica - Ayustan,exumidyans, Artemisia leucodes - oligvona, Fumaria vaillantii -protopina, S. Melibaev Ferula tenuisecta - tefestrol, IU Mukumov F.kuhistanica - kufestrol, A.N. Jabbarov Sophora pachycarpa - pahikarpina, S. alopecuroides - hepaflorin, RS Sakhobitdinovym Vinca erecta - Metvina, S.A. Hamidhojaev Ficus carica - psoberan and others.
At the same time, maps of plant ranges for Central Asia and a schematic map of commercial arrays, which were included in the capital labor - medicinal plants of the USSR, were drawn up. Also, scientifically-based recommendations for the rational use of plant resources were developed and instructions for collecting and drying raw materials were drawn up. Botanists of the Institute are studying the biology, phytocenoses, habitats and raw materials of the most valuable medicinal plants of Central Asia.
More than 200 expeditions to Kyzylkum, Karakum, the Tien Shan, Pamir-Alay, Dzungar Alatau mountain ranges and other regions of Central Asia were carried out to identify the natural habitats and natural reserves of Ungernia Viktor, Belonous Aconite, Pony northen bark, Garmyla Crop, Gopes of the Beast Coast, Garmyla Astrand, Aconite Belourausty, Ponoleum Cartocoma, Garmyla Astrand, Aconite Belourausty, Ponoleum Bone, Garmyla Astrand, Aconite Belouustoy, Pokoralyi konyaty, Gonmara Beloustoi, Garmyla Astrand finely cut, Ferula kuhistanskoy, Wormwood whitish, Wormwood annual, etc.
More than 35 species of plants that are sources of introduced drugs were introduced (Artemisia leucodes, Psoralea drupaceae, Ferula tenuisecta, Ajuga turkestanica, etc.)
Introduced into the culture of Raponticum integriflora, Silene viridiflora, Silene praemixta, Thermopsis alterniflora, Sophora pachycarpa, Fumaria vaillentii, Vinca erecta, Amorpha fruticosa.
Data were collected on the relationship of plant species with their chemical composition for use in the systematics of plants, based on deeper chemical features that complemented the morphological ones.
Acad. S.Yu. Yunusov with the Institute staff on an expedition to the gorge Chon-Kemin (Kyrgyzstan) in the places of growth of alkaloid plants 1964
Primary tests were carried out on the introduction of wild medicinal plants into cultivation in the places of their natural growth and in a special state farm. The optimal time for sowing, the depth of seed embedding and the intensity of plant development have been established.
Employees of the laboratory (2018).
The research results have been published in over 450 scientific papers, 3 monographs, 2 scientific collections, 5 popular science brochures, 7 instructions for collecting and drying medicinal plants. 3 doctoral and 15 master's theses have been defended.
1. Khamidhodzhaev Sultan Akhmedovich. Biology, stocks and introduction of medicinal species of Ungernia Bunge in Central Asia. 1990
2. Tayzhanov Karimzhan. Alkaloid plants of mountainous Central Asia. 1994.
3. Rakhmankulov Umarkul. Terpenoid containing plants and the economic value of species Ferula L. 1999
© IHRV AN RUz. 2019